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Video tracking

Powerful and user-friendly tool for automated recording of animalbehavior

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Inhibitory (passive) avoidance








  • Can be used for both active and passive avoidance testing
  • Designed for testing in rats






Dimensions (HxWxD)

Black compartment: 30cm X 20cm X 20 cm

White compartment: 30cm X 20cm X 20 cm

Stimulator apparatus: 28 cm X 21 cm X 8 cm

Current intensity

0.1-10 mA


1-100 HZ

Power Requirements

220 V, 50/60 HZ




One of the most common animal tests in memory research is the inhibition to imitate activities or learned habits. The term “passive avoidance” is usually employed to describe experiments in which the animal learns to avoid a noxious event by suppressing a particular behavior. Animals experience different sensitivity to the foot-shock punishment applied in the dark area, immediately after the first trial the animal is returned to the lighted area to evaluate if the task has been acquired. A criteria is established to determine the learning of the test, usually requiring the animal to remain in the lighted area for a period of 30–60 s. In this way, all the animals have a similar degree of learning independently of the amount of trials needed to attain it. The animals are placed in the lighted compartment and after they entered with the four paws into the dark area, the door is closed and a mild foot-shock is delivered. Immediately after the shock they are placed back in the lighted area for another trial. Training would continue this way until the animal remains in the lighted area for a certain period of time (30 or 60 s), a time at which the training is considered to be acquired by all the animals. The number of trials to attain criteria are counted as an indication of the speed of acquisition. Retention of the test is measured 24 or 48 hours later. The animals are placed in the lighted area, the door opened and the latency to step with the four paws into the dark area is recorded. A cut-off latency of 180 or 300 s is usually imposed. this procedure is useful to determine the effect of drugs on acquisition as amnesic drugs significantly increase the number of trials to reach the criterion. Saline-treated animals generally need 1–2 trials to reach criterion while animals under diazepam or scopolamine need 3–6 trials. Once the animals have been trained to a predetermined criteria (i.e., 30 s. avoidance) any effect of the drug on the retention trial can be associated to drug effects on consolidation rather on the acquisition process. Alternatively, drugs could be administered before the test session in order to determine the effect of the drug on retrieval processes. Brain lesions differentially affect acquisition or retention and this task has also been used to demonstrate the effect of grafts on recovery of function.




  1. Prenatal Stress Induces Metabolic Impairment in Adolescent Male Wistar Rat.( Fatemeh Rostamkhani1*, Homeira Zardooz2,3, Kazem Parivar1, Nasim Hayati Roodbari1)
  • Involvement of nitrergic system of CA1in harmane induced learning and memory deficits.(Mohammad Nasehi a, Morteza Piri b, Mojgan Abdollahian c, Mohammad Reza Zarrindast)


  • Evaluation of Chronic Physical and Psychological Stress Induction on Cardiac Ischemia / Reperfusion Injuries in Isolated Male Rat Heart: The Role of Sympathetic Nervous System(Kamran Rakhshan1, Alireza Imani1,2,3, Mahdieh Faghihi1, Fatemeh Nabavizadeh1,Masoumeh Golnazari4, and Seyed Morteza Karimian1)
  • Effect of Short and Long-Term Treatment with Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Scopolamine-Induced Amnesia.(Marjan Ajamia, Shariar Eghtesadia, Rouhollah Habibeyb, Jalaledin mirzay razazd,c,Habibolah Peyrovid, Mohammadreza Zarrindaste,f and Hamidreza Pazoki-Toroudib,)
  • Effects of Vitexin on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Rats.(Esmail Abbasi1, Marjan Nassiri-Asl2, *, Mehdi Sheikhi3, and Mahsa Shafiee4)
  • Activation of cannabinoid CB1 receptors in the central amygdala impairs inhibitory avoidance memory consolidation via NMDA receptors(Maryam Ghiasvand a, Ameneh Rezayof b, Mohammad Reza Zarrindast a,c,d,e,f,⇑, Shamseddin Ahmadi)
  • Ellagic acid improves hyperalgesia and cognitive deficiency in 6-hydroxidopamine induced rat model of Parkinson’s disease.(Mojtaba Dolatshahi 1, 2, Yaghoob Farbood 1, 2*, Alireza Sarkaki 1, 2, Seyed Mohammad Taqhi Mansouri 1, 3, Ali Khodadadi)
  • Proteome Analysis of Rat Hippocampus Following Morphine-induced Amnesia and State-dependent Learning.(Saeideh Jafarinejad-Farsangia, Ali Farazmanda, Ameneh Rezayof b* and Niloufar Darbandic)
  • The effects of Leptin on gastric ulcer due to physical and psychological stress: Involvement of nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2.(Soghra Fallahi a, Fatemeh Nabavizadeh a,*, Seyed Shahabadin Sadra, Ali Mohammad Alizadeh b, Soheila Adeli a, Hossein Nahrevanian c, Hamid Reza Sadeghipour a Gholamreza Hasanzade)
  • Hippocampal signalingpathwaysareinvolved in stress inducedimpairmentofmemoryformation in rats.(MaryamSardaria, AmenehRezayof a,n, FaribaKhodagholib)


توضیحات فارسی

این دستگاه برای درک حافظه و یادگیری برای حیواناتی مثل موش صحرایی یا سوری مورد استفاده قرار می گیرند که در آن نور به عنوان محرک شرطی استفاده می شود.همچنین تحریک الکتریکی نفش محرک غیر شرطی را در این تست دارد.این دستگاه از دو قسمت محفظه اصلی و جعبه کنترل تشکیل شده است.محفظه ی اصلی از جنس پلاکسی گلاس است و کف آن میله هایی فلزی برای اعمال شوک تعبیه شده است. این محفظه توسط دیواره ای به دو قسمت مساوی تقسیم شده است که یکی تاریک و دیگری روشن است.